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Inside stories of the Korean War - Jung-ang Bukhan Net
Name: Admin
2001-09-27 00:00:00  |  Hit 2066

Inside stories of the Korean War - Jung-ang Bukhan Net

한국전쟁 발발에 얽힌 비화-중앙 북한네트 
 
이름 : 운영자     번호 : 79 
게시일 : 2001/03/21 (수) AM 07:54:11     조회 : 64  

   최원기의 자료실 


<해외자료> 한국전쟁 발발에 얽힌 비화 
9 번째로 최원기님이 2001-01-10 오전 11:1에 글올림    35번 읽음 
워싱턴과 모스크바 수뇌부들이 상대방에 대한 오해와 예기치않은 사건들의 중첩으로 인해 한반도에 6.25가 발생했다는 새로운 주장이 제기됐다. 다음은 미국의 시사 주간지 「유에스 뉴스 앤 월드 리포트」가 지난 19일 한국전 발발 50주년을 기해 게재한 특집기사 내용 요약이다. 

스탈린은 왜 미국이 참전하지 않으리라 생각했는가 
(Why Stalin thought the U.S. would stay out) 

만약 모스크바와 워싱턴 수뇌부가 상대방의 의도를 정확하게 읽었다면, 한국전은 결코 일어나지 않았거나 결과가 판이하게 달랐을 것이다. 

트루만 대통령과 그의 보좌관들은 1950년 발생한 북한의 6.25 침공을 미국에 대한 스탈린의 직접적인 도전으로 받아들였다. 소련의 붕괴 이후 1990년대에 들어와 러시아의 문서보관소들은 전쟁은 북한의 김일성 주석이 실질적으로 밀어붙인 것이며, 김은 공격 승인을 요구하는 48차례의 전문을 통해 스탈린을 졸랐다고 폭로했다. 스탈린은 여러 차례에 걸쳐 이 요구를 거절했으나, 
마침내 1950년 1월 동의하고 말았음을 입증하고 있다. 

스탈린은 자신이 당초 견해를 번복한 이유를 설명한 적이 없다. 따라서 이제 역사가들의 추측에 의존할 수밖에 없다. 이제 역사가들은 다음의 사실들을 확실히 알고 있다. 스탈린은 워싱턴과의 정면충돌만큼은 원치 않았고, 소련이 전쟁을 일으키더라도 미국이 단호하게 대응하지 않을 것으로 판단했다. 

스탈린은 1950년 4월 김일성과의 회동에서 "미국에서 입수된 정보에 따르면, 미국은(전쟁이 일어나더라도) 참전하지 않을 것"이라고 말했다. 당시 회동은 전쟁 계획을 세우고 있던 모스크바에서 열렸다. "미국의 전반적인 분위기는 간여하지 않는 것이다." 스탈린은 또 미국의 이런 분위기는 한 해 전 8월에 있었던 성공적인 원폭 실험으로 더욱 강화되었다고 말했다. 

미국 우드로우 윌슨 센터(Woodrow Wilson Center)에서 냉전기 국제 역사 프로젝트(CWIHP, The Cold War Internatinal History Project)를 위해 새로운 증거를 연구하고 있는 역사가 캐써 
린 웨더스비(Kathryn Weathersby)는, 만일 전쟁이 일어나기 전에 워싱턴이 모스크바에 대해 만일 소련이 남한을 침공할 경우 맞서 싸우겠다는 경고를 했다면 어떻게 되었을까라는 상상만 할 수 있을 뿐이라고 말한다. 

엄격한 통제를 받는 모스크바의 대통령 문서보관소(Presidential Archive)에서 발굴된 온 문서 속에는 스탈린과 김일성이 만나 나눈 대화의 요지를 담은 것이 있다. 이 문서는 오래된 논쟁에 다시 불을 붙일 소지가 있다. 

미 국무장관 애치슨은 1950년 1월12일 내셔널 프레스 클럽에서 한국을 미국의 방위선에서 제외한다는 유명한 연설을 했다. 공산주의자들은 후에 애치슨이 침공을 촉진시켰다고 비난했다. 그러나 당시 애치슨은 단지 트루만의 정책을 인용해 말했을 뿐이다. 스탈린이 (김일성과의 대화에서 미국에서 입수된 정보라고 언급한) 언급한 문서는 바로 미국의 대아시아 정책 문서인 NSC48이었다. 모스크바는 영국 출신의 스파이 도날드 맥클린(Donald Maclean) 덕택에 그 문서에 대해서 알았을 것이다. 

스탈린은 한국의 무력 통일 가능성에 대한 또 다른 근거로 국민당에 대한 중국 공산당의 승리를 들었다. 중국의 공산화는 서방이 약해졌음을 나타내는 상징이었으며, 필요할 경우 마오쩌뚱의 혁명 세력이 한반도에서 도와줄 수도 있다는 것을 뜻했다. 
스탈린은 또 하나의 큰 실수를 저질렀다. 원래의 전쟁 계획은 옹진 반도를 점령해 남한의 반응을 유도하기 위한 것이었다. 북한은 옹진 반도가 공격당했다고 주장하고나서 전면 공격을 개시할 생각이었다. 스탈린은 김일성에게 "전쟁은 기습적으로 치러야 한다. 남한과 미국이 정신차릴 시간을 주어서는 안 된다"라면서 소련은 직접 참전하지 않을 것이라고 말했다. 

그러나 한국전 개전 나흘 전인 6월21일, 스탈린은 평양 주재 소련 대사에게서 남한이 계획을 알아차렸다는 내용의 전문을 받는다. 스탈린은 당장 답신을 보냈다. 38도선 전면 공격을 하겠다는 김일성 계획에 동의한 것이다. 

웨더스비는, 2차세계대전식의 전격전은 사실상 서구권의 즉각적인 응전을 불러오게 되어 있었다고 말한다. 서구권은 결국 소련에 대응했고, 미국이 참전하지 않으리라는 스탈린의 생각은 빗나갔다. 이 역사의 한 장면은 앞으로 나올지 모를 독재자에게 좋은 교훈이 될 수 있을 것이다. 

작성:운영자



 
 

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